Tibet historical timeline

- through Fabrice Groult

Published on

Fresco on the history of the Roof of the World, from the monarchy to the present day.

1-Ancient history: monarchy

1063 BC. AD: Bönteun Shénrab, founder of the indigenous Bön religion.

127 BC. AD: King Nyatri Tsenpo acceded to the throne and settled in the palace of Youmbou Lagang in the valley of Yarloung Tsangpo (river of Brahmaputra).
NB: 18 kings reigned over Tibet before King Nyatri Tsenpo.
Date of the beginning of the official calendar called: "Royal Tibetan Year".

Around 609: : First Tibetan embassy in China

620 AD: Birth of 33e King Songtsen Gampo.
Introduction of Buddhism to Tibet. The Tibetan minister Thonmi Sambhota travels to India and, on the basis of Sanskrit, invents the Tibetan script still currently in use. 8 years of war between China and Tibet.

Around 635: Introduction of writing in central Tibet.

640: Tibetans invade Nepal.

650 : Death of Songtsen Gampo. He leaves an empire that stretches from the sources of the Brahmaputra to the plains of Sichuan and Nepal to the Tsaidam basin (north-east of the Tibetan plateau).

755: the 37e King Trissong Detsen

763: The Tibetan army invades Chang An (now Xian), capital of China.

791: Buddhism becomes official religion of Tibet

794 : The Tibetan emperor brings together in Samyé the supporters of Buddhism of Indian inspiration and those of Buddhism of Chinese inspiration. The Kamalashila Indian having imposed itself during the controversy, the sovereign chose the Indian model and Sanskrit was adopted as the sacred language of Tibetan Buddhism.
NB: Construction of the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet at Samyé and ordination of the first seven Tibetan Buddhist monks.

817-836: King Tri Rélpatchène.
Indian Buddhism is declared the official state religion. Massive translation of Buddhist works in Sanskrit into Tibetan.

822: Treaty concluded between China and Tibet which, among other things, delimits the Sino-Tibetan border.
NB: Text of the treaty engraved on a stone stele in Tibetan and Chinese signed between the King of Tibet, Tri Rélpatchène and the Chinese emperor Mu Tsoung of the Tang dynasty.

838: Assassination of Emperor Tritsug Detsen, strangled by supporters of tradition good and hostile to Buddhism. The 42e King Langdarma is enthroned.

842:  Assassination of King Langdarma and end of the monarchy in Tibet.

842-1247: Period of political chaos and absence of central authority in Tibet.

2-End of monarchy and beginning of theocracy

1042 : Arrival in Tibet, with twenty-four disciples, of Dipamkara Shrijnana, Indian master better known under the name of Atisha. After remaining in the west of the country, he settled in central Tibet in 1046 and quickly established himself as the restorer of Buddhism.

1052-1135: Life of Milarepa, disciple of Marpa the Translator, one of the most famous figures of Tibetan Buddhism.

1073: Successive development of the Buddhist schools of Tibet: Sakya, Kagyu and Gelug.

1121 : Construction of the monastery of Daghla Gampo, linked to the spiritual line of Kagyupa which includes Naropa, Marpa the Translator, Milarepa and Gampopa.

1142-1210 : Life of Talung Tangpa, founder of the monastery of Talung built in 1180. He is one of the masters who set the rules of monastic life.

1165: Benjamin of Tudela, the great Jewish traveler, was the first in Europe to mention the country "Tibet" following his visit to Samarkand in Central Asia.

1199 : The great monastic university of Nalanda (in Bihar, India) repository of the tradition of Mahayana and Vajrayana, is destroyed by the Muslim invaders and the surviving religious find refuge in Nepal and Tibet.

1226: Genghis Khan's Mongol armies take control of the northern Tibetan plateau. Tibet then pays tribute to the kaghan of the Mongols.

1249: The Mongols grant the Sakyapas temporal power over the Lhasa region and over their stronghold of Tsang.

1254-1350: 20 Sakya Lamas reign successively over Tibet.
Beginning of so-called “Benefactors and Spiritual Masters” relationships (Tib: Tcheuyoen).

1270: Kublai Khan, Mongol emperor who reigned over China, and the Tibetan master P'agpa conclude an agreement on politico-religious relations.

1271-1295 : Voyage of Marco Polo which passes through Chengdu and mentions Tibet.

1279 to 1368: Tibetan Buddhism becomes the official religion of the Mongol Yuan dynasty in China.

1368 : End of the Yuan dynasty. The Ming dominate China.

1364-1373 : Reign of Djamyang Shakya Gyaltsen who erases the last traces of Mongol power over Tibet.

1357-1419 : Life of Lobsang Dragpa said Djé Tsongkhapa, founder of the school of Gelougpa, "The Virtuous".

1350 -1434: The 11 hierarch Lamas of the P'agmodrou lineage, descended from the Kagyupa, reign over the country.

1409: Creation in Lhasa by Dragpa Gyaltsen, the fifth ruler P'hamogdrou, of the prayer festival of Meunlam Tchenmo. Foundation of the monastery of Ganden, seat of the Gelugpa, followed by those of the monasteries of Drepung (1416) and Sera (1419).

1436-1566: The powerful Rinpung family rules over Tibet.

1566-1642: Three princes of Tsang follow one another to lead the country.

1576 : Altan Khan, the Mongol leader who then dominated the northern steppes, converted to Buddhism, and more particularly Tibetan Buddhism.

1578: Attribution of the title of Dalai Lama (“Ocean of Wisdom”) to the Third Dalai Lama by the Mongol King Altan Khan

3-Rise of the Dalai Lamas

1624: Two Portuguese Jesuits, Antonio de Andrade and Manuel Marques, reach Western Tibet.

1626: They founded the first Christian church on Tibetan land.

1617-1682 : "Reign" of the Ve Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang Gyamtso.

1642: The Ve Dalai Lama Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso assumes full powers of Tibet.
Foundation of the current government called "Ganden P'odrang".

1644 to 1841: Le Tibetan Buddhism is one of the official religions of China.

1660: Johannes Grueber, an Austrian Jesuit and Albert d'Orville, a Belgian Jesuit, reach the capital of Tibet, Lhasa.

1660: Peace agreement with Sikkim, but a long war begins in 1679 with Ladakh.

1682: The regent Sangye Gyamsto, appointed in 1679, concealed the death of the Ve Dalai Lama by claiming that he was engaged in a long spiritual retreat and ruled himself.

1684: Settlement of the war with Ladakh which sees its borders confirmed, but agrees to pay tribute to Tibet.

1700 and following: Installation of Chinese garrisons in the east of Kham province.

1707: Arrival of Capuchin missionaries in Tibet.

1716 : The Jesuits Ippolito Desideri and Manuel Freyre arrive in Lhasa where they are joined by the Capuchins Domenico da Fano and Orazio Della Penna, whose congregation is responsible for the evangelization of the country.

In 1720: The 1708th Dalai Lama, Kelzang Gyamtso settled in the Potala (1757-XNUMX). Regency and title of “King of Tibet” are abolished. A Manchurian garrison settles in Lhasa.

1724: The Capuchins receive permission to build a chapel in Lhasa. 

1728: Eastern Kham is annexed by China (this region corresponds today to the northwest of Yunnan and the west of Sichuan).

1745: Expulsion of Catholic missionaries. Their chapel is razed.

1750-1751: Anti-Chinese movements in Tibet, the Qianlong emperor imposes reforms there.

1763: Tibetan coinage modeled on current Nepalese coins since 1640.

June 1787: First war provoked by Nepal under Prithivi Narayan Shah against Tibet.

June 1791: Second war between Tibet and Nepal. Chinese intervention.

June 1792: Treaty signed between Nepal and Tibet in Kathmandu.

In 1793: promulgation of Chinese decrees aimed at controlling Tibetan affairs, de facto protectorate. 

Late 1860th century-XNUMXs: Great Britain and Russia, through annexations or treaties, extend their influence towards Tibet (Himalayan regions, Mongol and Turco-Mongol territories). Tibet becomes a strategic stake between London, Saint-Petersburg and Beijing.

1834: Publication in Calcutta of the first English-Tibetan dictionary by the Hungarian scholar Alexandre Csoma de Koros.

1842: War between Ladakh and Tibet, signing of a treaty.
NB: While China has proclaimed itself the protector of Tibet, it does not however intervene under Western pressure (Opium War 1839-1842).

1846 : Arrival in January in Lhasa of the Lazarist fathers Huc and Gabet. They are expelled in March. The same year, Pope Gregory XVI grants the monopoly of the conversion of Tibet to the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris. Lhasa is set up as an apostolic vicariate dependent on the apostolic vicariate of Sichuan.

March 24, 1856: Treaty between Nepal and Tibet signed in Kathmandu, Tibet recognizes itself as a tributary.
NB: China did not intervene. Relations between Tibet and Nepal until the Chinese invasion are based on the text of the 1856 treaty. 

1850-1860: Beijing has repeatedly declared Tibet an independent territory.
NB: This position is supported by Beijing in the face of French diplomacy which seeks to obtain Chinese aid to install Catholic missionaries in Tibet.

1857: Pope Pius IX appoints Monsignor Thomine-Desmazures as the first bishop of Tibet.

1862: Father Renou and Father Desgodins are denied access to Lhasa.

1875: Birth of the XNUMXth Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso.

1879: The XNUMXth Dalai Lama is enthroned, placed under the tutelage of the Panchen Lama, he does not actually take the reins of power until fifteen years later.

1880: Edict banning the Christian religion, followed in 1881 by the assassination of Father Brieux, one of the French missionaries settled in the east of the country.

1883 : Anti-Nepal riots in Lhasa. The affair is settled between Tibet and its neighbour, with Chinese mediation.

1887-1888: Strong border tensions between Tibet and Sikkim, under British protectorate.

March 17, 1890: Anglo-Chinese Treaty of Calcutta, delimitation of the Tibet-Sikkim border.
NB: Great Britain is betting on the Chinese card, to the detriment of Tibet, to thwart Russian pressure. The Tibetan authorities refuse any validity to this treaty. Nevertheless, from then on, Tibet is defined as part of China from the point of view of international law.

1893: Russia sends two Kalmouk Buddhist monks to Lhasa, thus showing its interest in Tibet.

1894: The XNUMXth Dalai Lama assumes full powers.

1895: Anglo-Chinese commercial treaty on Tibet, opening of a trading post. Refusal of Tibet; reinstatement of the boundary markers from before 1890.

1904: Colonel Younghusband's Anglo-Indian military expedition to Tibet. Departure in exile of the XNUMXth Dalai Lama Mongolia.
NB: This expedition was launched by British India following the stubborn refusal of the government of Tibet to enter into negotiations or the opening of commercial relations with India.

1904: Anglo-Tibetan Treaty.
NB: The treaty was followed by a diplomatic waltz Beijing – Saint Petersburg – London, the Powers thus dividing up the Asian continent (Mongolian territories, Tibet, Afghanistan, Persia…).

1905-1911: Revolt in Chinese eastern Tibet (Sichuan, Yunnan) in response to pressure from Beijing, from a Tibetan nationalist movement in the region (militarization, economic exploitation, anti-Buddhist policy). French missionaries are killed (Fathers Mussot, Soulié, Bourdonnec and Dubernard). The French missions disappear from the Tibetan marches.

1908: Stay of the XNUMXth Dalai Lama in Beijing where he discovers the existence of the new treaties and pleads his case, in vain, with the Chinese Empire.
NB: During his stay, he contacted French diplomats to try to establish political, economic and cultural relations with France. After a period of hesitation, France abandoned the Dalai Lama to his fate, for fear of harming Franco-British understanding.

December 1909: Return of the 1910th Dalai Lama to Tibet, but Chinese invasion in February XNUMX; he finds refuge in India.

1910 -1912: Stay in India of the XNUMXth Dalai Lama.
NB: The XNUMXth Dalai Lama saw the advantages of allying with London and took advantage of his exile to consider the modernization of Tibet.

1911: Republican Revolution in China. End of the reigning monarchy in China.
NB: The situation in Tibet is chaotic, the XNUMXth Dalai Lama took the opportunity to delegate his agents there in order to organize the resistance there.

In 1912: Printing and introduction of paper money and postage stamps in Tibet. Tibet expels Chinese representatives from Lhasa.

January 1913 : Treaty between Mongolia and Tibet.
Return of the XNUMXth Dalai Lama and proclamation of the independence of Tibet.

1913-1914: Simla meetings and tripartite agreement.
NB: This return opens a period of collaboration with Great Britain (opening of trading posts, sending Tibetans to England, etc.) and modernization of the country. This leads to a traditionalist crystallization around the great monasteries.
NB: Tibet cedes part of its territory to Calcutta (North East Frontier Agency); China does not ratify the treaty according to which Tibet nevertheless recognizes itself in Beijing's orbit. Therefore, Tibet reaffirms that it is free from any duty towards China.

1917-1918: Sino-Tibetan border war; Tibetan victory and signing of the Rongbatsa agreement placing the Sino-Tibetan border on the course of the Yangtse (Dritchou).

1922: Opening of the Lhasa/Calcutta (then capital of British India) telegraph line by an exchange between the Dalai Lama and the Viceroy of India, Lord Reading.

1924: Issuance of coins using mechanized processes (equipment imported from the United Kingdom).

1925: Victory of the Conservatives; break with Great Britain.

1932: Sino-Tibetan border war; the border is now fixed on the Mekong (Dzatchou).

December 17, 1933: Death of the XNUMXth Dalai Lama Thuptene Gyatso.

1934: Formal relationship established between the government of Nationalist China and Tibet.

July 6, 1935: Birth of the current Dalai Lama, the XNUMXth, at Taktser, near Kumbum in Amdo.

1936: Resumption of relations with Great Britain; a British India mission opens in Lhasa. Sir Basil Gould, Political Officer of Sikkim goes to Lhasa.

1939: Arrival in Tibet of a four-year-old child, identified as the new Dalai Lama.

November 25, 1939: Nine members of a delegation from the Kuomintang (Kuomintang) government of Nationalist China arrive and settle in Lhasa.

February 1940: Enthronement of the current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso.


4-Invasion of Tibet

March 1947: The Tibetan government requests the purchase of arms from the government of British India. The agreement is given.

June 1947: India provides military equipment including semi-submachine guns, cartridges, cannons.

August 15, 1947: India becomes independent.

January 1949: Chiang Kai Shek and his government capitulate to the Communists, and flee to Taiwan.

July 8, 1949: Chen Xizhang, Acting Director of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission receives the notice of expulsion from the Government of Tibet.
NB: This is an embassy of the Chinese government of Goumindang in Lhasa, reopened on November 25, 1939. 

September 2, 1949: The communist Chinese newspaper Xinhua Pao reacts against this expulsion.

September 24, 1949: Zhu De (Chu Teh) presents his "Common Program" for the first time and declares that "revolutionary war must be waged to liberate Formosa, Pescadores, Hainan Island and Tibet".

September 29, 1949: The People's National Congress (Parliament) approves the “Common Programme”.

October 1, 1949: Mao Zedong proclaims the People's Republic of China.

January 1, 1950: Radio Beijing announces the coming "liberation of Tibet".

January 6, 1950: Great Britain formally recognizes the People's Republic of China.

January 1950: Radio Lhasa, operated by the Tibetan government, relays for the first time information in Tibetan, Chinese and English (by Reginald Fox).

January 26, 1950: India becomes a republic with the promulgation of its Constitution drawn up by Bhimrao Ambedkar.

January 31, 1950: Radio Lhasa rejects Beijing's claim that Tibet is considered part of China.

February 14, 1950: Solidarity pact between Stalin and Mao Tsetung.

February 1950: Under the leadership of a minister Shakabpa, Tibet sends a delegation to China, but for political reasons, it could not go there.

May 1950: First conflict between Communist and Tibetan forces at Denkhog in Kham province.

October 7, 1950: While the Korean War is in full swing, 40 People's Liberation Army (PLA) soldiers cross the Drichu (Yangtze) River.
NB: All official Chinese documents refer to this event as “peaceful liberation”, because for communist China, it is a question of “liberating Tibet from the yoke of Western imperialist forces”.

October 26, 1950: India formally protests against the invasion of Tibet by Chinese troops.

October 19, 1950: Ngabo Ngawang Jigmé, the governor of Kham, capitulates to the communist troops. On this occasion, China announces "the liquidation of 5 enemies, 638 soldiers killed and wounded".

November 1, 1950: Tibet sends a letter to the communist regime.

November 7, 1950: Tibet asks for help from the UN.

November 10, 1950: Communist China makes a first statement on the future status of Tibet.

November 17, 1950: The XNUMXth Dalai Lama assumes full powers.

December 9, 1950: Flight of the Dalai Lama towards the Indian border of Dromo (Yatung).

August 17, 1951: Return of the Dalai Lama to Lhasa.

September 9, 1951: Several thousand PLA troops enter Lhasa.

May 23, 1951: 17-point agreement signed in Beijing between China and Tibet, known as “Agreement between the central government of China and the local government of Tibet on measures for the peaceful liberation of Tibet”.
NB: Agreement signed under threat, because the Tibetan delegation in Beijing was warned by Li Weihan that if they do not sign the agreement, the communist troops already present in the Chamdo (Chamdo) region will advance further towards central Tibet . Moreover, the stamp of the Tibetan delegates who had no power to sign anything was made on the spot in Beijing. Agreement not ratified and, later in April 1959, denounced by the Dalai Lama in Tezpur, India.

May 27, 1951: Radio Beijing announces the signing of the 17-Point Agreement.

April 29, 1954: "Five Principles Agreement" or Pancha Sheel between India and China signed in Beijing, by which Tibet is recognized as a region of China. India thus ceded all the extraterritorial rights and privileges it inherited from the British colonial power. The Mission of India in Lhasa becomes simply “Consulate General”.
NB: Agreement signed without consultation with Tibet. Indian Prime Minister Nehru naively believed that by signing this agreement, China would accept the border delimitations between China (Tibet is now considered a Chinese region) and India, and thus ensure peace between the two giants of Asia.

1954: China is giving itself a new Constitution which excludes any right of secession from the autonomous regions. An article states that China grants “Regional Autonomy”, but that “Autonomous Regions are an integral part of the People's Republic of China”.
NB: In 1931, the Constitution of the Soviet Republic of Jiangxi of the communist movement grants the right to the autonomous regions to separate from the People's Republic to become independent countries.

Of 1950 1957 to : The Chinese are mobilizing Tibetan labor to develop three major strategic highways: road from Lhasa to Chengdu, in Sichuan, road from Lhasa to Xining, in Qinghai, road from Lhasa to Xinjiang. This use of forced labor will claim thousands of victims.

December 15, 1954 : Road to Lhasa from China officially open.

1954-1955: Dalai Lama's official trip to China.

March 9, 1955: In Beijing, China launches the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region CPRAT.

Early 1956: Generalization of the revolts of Tibetans in the eastern region of Kham against the Chinese invasion.

April 22, 1956: In Lhasa, in the presence of Chen Yi, the CPRAT is officially inaugurated.

1956: Trade agreement signed by China with Nepal. Article 3 of this agreement stipulates that “all treaties and documents which may have existed between Nepal and China including those between Nepal and the Tibet Region of China are hereby abrogated”.
NB: Agreement between Nepal and Tibet of 1856 by which the first who enjoyed privileged rights is rendered null and void. The Mission of Nepal in Lhasa is now considered simply "Consulate".

November 1956: The Dalai Lama visits India to celebrate the 2500th birthday of Buddha Shakyamuni.

March 21, 1957: Organization of the Tibetan armed resistance. A first group of six Tibetans was able to return to the peaceful island of Saipan to be trained by the CIA.

March 10, 1959: Popular uprising of Tibetans against the Chinese invasion in Lhasa.

March 16, 1959: The Dalai Lama leaves his residence in Norbulingka at midnight.

April 1, 1959: The Dalai Lama and his entourage arrive at the Tchou Tr'angmo border crossing hosted by India.
NB: All Chinese documents refer to these events as the entry into "democratic reform".


April 1959: Exile of the Dalai Lama and members of his government. 80 Tibetans follow them into exile. Installation of the government in exile in Mussoorie, in the north of India.

October 21, 1959: Resolution 1353 passed at the UN General Assembly on Tibet.

1960: The Pandit Nehru proposes the site of Dharamsala where the Dalai Lama and his government settle definitively.

September 2, 1960: Birth of the first Assembly of the Deputies of the Tibetan People.

December 20, 1961: Resolution 1723 passed at the UN on Tibet.

March 10, 1963: The Constitution, based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, is promulgated and applied within the government in exile.
Several institutions were born: School of Tibetan medicine, school of dance and song, different departments (Interior, Religion and Culture, Security, Education, Information and International Relations, Health, Finance), autonomous commissions such as the plan, election, audit…

October 1962: Border war against India provoked by China which wants to rectify its border with India.
NB: To date, the border between India and the former Tibet (China) is not officially delimited and recognized by two parties despite several discussions to delimit it.

January 27, 1964: France recognizes the People's Republic of China and restores diplomatic relations with China.

1964: First Chinese atomic bomb explosion in the Lop Nor desert.

1965: Resolution 2079 passed at the UN on the issue of Tibet.
NB: These three UN resolutions on Tibet, which denounce “the deprivation of fundamental rights and freedoms of the Tibetan people, and in particular of their right to self-determination”, have so far remained a dead letter.

1965: Administrative division of Tibet. 1er September 1965, creation of the “Autonomous Region of Tibet”.

August 1966: The Cultural Revolution, which will last ten years, is launched in China and Tibet. Methodical ransacking of Tibetan monasteries by the Guards. In ten years, of the six thousand monasteries and places of worship in the country, barely ten have been spared. The collectivization of land and the generalization of the system of popular communes complete the total ruin of the country.

For the period 1951-1983, these are 432 killed in clashes, 000 dead of starvation, 343 dead in prison, 000 executions, 130 victims tortured to death, compared to the figure of the Tibetan population, it would be one inhabitant out of five who would be like this disappeared in "greater ethnic Tibet".

1971 : Foundation of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, a veritable repository of the memory of traditional Tibet.

February 21, 1972: Warming of Sino-American relations with the visit of President Richard Nixon to Beijing.

1973: Cessation of CIA aid to the Tibetan guerrilla movement and closure of Mustang bases in Nepal.

1973: First travels of a Dalai Lama in Europe.

April 1974: First nuclear bomb explosion by India in the Thar Desert (Rajasthan).

September 9, 1976: Death of Mao Zedong.

1977: Beginning of the easing of repression in Tibet.

1er January 1979: The United States of America recognizes the People's Republic of China.

August 2, 1979: China authorizes the very first delegation of exile to go to Tibet.

1979: Attempt at negotiations between the Chinese government and the Dalai Lama to resolve the Tibetan question. The successive visit of three Tibetan delegations sent by His Holiness to observe the real conditions of Tibet is accepted by the Chinese authority.

1982: For the first time, the Dalai Lama visits France.
NB: Faced with the refusal of the French visa, he was unable to travel before to the homeland of Human Rights!

September 1987: For the first time in the United States Congress, the Dalai Lama outlines his Five-Point Peace Plan to resolve the Tibet issue.
NB: This peace plan contains five fundamental elements:

  1. Transformation of the whole of Tibet into a zone of peace;
  2. Abandonment by China of its policy of population transfer which endangers the existence of Tibetans as a people;
  3. Respect for the fundamental rights and democratic freedoms of the Tibetan people;
  4. Restoration and protection of the natural environment of Tibet, as well as cessation by China of its policy of using Tibet in the production of nuclear weapons and the burial of nuclear waste;
  5. Commitment to serious negotiations about the future status of Tibet and relations between the Tibetan and Chinese peoples.

June 1988: The Five-Point Peace Plan is developed in front of the European Parliament in Strasbourg.

June 1989: Bloody suppression of student protests in Tian'anmen Square.

December 10, 1989: Nobel Prize of Peace awarded to the Dalai Lama.

1990: The members of the cabinet in exile are no longer appointed by the Dalai Lama who proposes to submit a list of 3 personalities for the approval of the Parliament in exile.

1991 : During the International Year of Tibet, the Dalai Lama is received in many countries. In October, the US Congress defines greater Tibet as an occupied country and the Dalai Lama and his government as the true representatives of the Tibetan people.

1992: Last direct contact between the Chinese government and the Tibetan government in exile.

1994: His Holiness the Dalai Lama says he has failed in his efforts to find a negotiated solution based on openness.

2001: Election by direct suffrage of the head of government in exile for a renewable term of five years.

2002: resumption of Sino-Tibetan relations. 1st round of Sino-Tibetan contacts.

2003: 2nd round of Sino-Tibetan contacts

2004: 3nd round of Sino-Tibetan contacts

2005: 4nd round of Sino-Tibetan contacts

2006: 5nd round of Sino-Tibetan contacts

July 2006: Opening of the railway line to Lhasa.

2007: 6th round of Sino-Tibetan contacts.

2008: 5,8 million Tibetans live in their country invaded and occupied by the Chinese. Since 1959, more than 100 Tibetans have fled persecution. 000 Tibetans live outside Tibet in exile. The Tibetan government in exile seeks to resolve the Tibetan problem through direct negotiations with Beijing. His Holiness the Dalai Lama has proposed to the Chinese authorities a status of real autonomy for Tibet. However, the Chinese government has so far refused all proposals. It continues its repression in Tibet and continues to impose preconditions for the opening of any negotiations.

February 2009: Following tensions in the Ngaba region, a Tibetan monk sets himself on fire. In the past ten years, 160 Tibetans have committed suicide.

March 20, 2011 : Election of the Tibetan Prime Minister. These elections mark, with the withdrawal of the Dalai Lama from political life, the first separation of politics and religion in the history of Tibet in exile.

2015 : Launch in Switzerland of the "Gaden Phodrang Foundation of the Dalai Lama" which aims to promote fundamental human values, mutual understanding between religions, peace and non-violence, as well as the protection of the environment.

March 20, 2016 : Re-election of Tibetan Prime Minister Lobsang Sangay of the National Democratic Party of Tibet. This is the second election for prime minister after the Dalai Lama retired from political life in 2011.

April 25th : The United States Senate unanimously passes a resolution on the right of the Tibetan Buddhist community to identify and install their religious leaders, also believing that any interference by the government of the People's Republic of China in the religious process of Tibet is " invalid ".

2019 : China continues its policy of forced settlement of Tibetan nomads.

27th November 2019 : The 14th Tibetan Religious Conference adopts a resolution which affirms that only the Dalai Lama can choose his reincarnation and that only the reincarnation chosen by him will be recognized by the Tibetan people.

December 2019 : A bill is about to be tabled in the United States Congress. This law aims to impose on the Chinese government the opening of a United States consulate in Lhasa before any new establishment in the United States of Chinese consulates.

December 21, 2019 : 600th anniversary of the death of Je Tsongkhapa.

photo of author

Fabrice Groult

Fabrice Groult is an adventurer, photographer and Buddhist who has traveled the world since a young age. After studying Buddhism in India, he embarked on an eighteen-month journey through Asia that took him to the Himalayas, where he discovered his passion for photography. Since then, he has traveled the world capturing images of Buddhist beauty and wisdom. He was a guide for ten years, and is now a journalist with Buddhist News.

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